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The Firebird



Storyguide
Read the fairy-tale story of the Firebird
Children's activity sheet
Click here for a printable colouring and puzzle sheet featuring the Firebird herself
Press quotes
See what the critics thought The Firebird.
The history of The Firebird
Read more about the creation of the ballet
Introductory notes
Your first destination for information on one of Stravinsky's most popular ballets

Le Baiser de la fée



Introduction
Find out about this ballet, and the other versions that have preceded it.
Michael Corder
Read the biography of the choreographer
The Fairy's Kiss
Michael Corder discusses his new piece

Petrushka



Introduction to Petrushka
Find out about the creation of the ballet, and one of the few narrative scores in Stravinsky's career
Behind-the-scenes: the shoe supervisor
A behind-the-scenes interview with Michael Clifford, Birmingham Royal Ballet's shoemaster, where he explains why Petrushka demands more work than Sleeping Beauty.
The Acrobat and the Ringmaster
Read about the prolific partnership of Stravinsky and Diaghilev

Introduction to Petrushka



Of all Stravinsky's ballets Petrushka is the most graphic: the one where the music seems most conspiciously to be telling a story, and where, correspondingly, substantial passages suggest action in mime rather than formal dance. The score appears to have been fitted exactly to this particular narrative, whereas, to give just one example, even The Rite of Spring has been shown by Walt Disney to be just as suitable for dinosaurs to dance as ancient Scythians

However, in his own account of the work's genesis, Stravinsky was at pains to affirm that the music of Petrushka came before any notion of subject matter. According to his memoirs, he claimed:

'I wanted to refresh myself by composing an orchestral piece in which the piano would play the most important part... In composing the music, I had in mind a distinct picture of a puppet, suddenly endowed with life, exasperating the patience of the orchestra with diabolical cascades of arpeggios. The orchestra in turn retaliates with menacing trumpet blasts. The outcome is a terrific noise which reaches its climax and ends in the sorrowful and querulous collapse of the poor puppet'.

This sounds like a description of the ballet's second scene, though at this point, so Stravinsky insists, he still did not know he was writing a ballet, even less one with this subject. Speaking of the summer he spent in 1910 writing the piece, he said: 'I struggled for hours, walking beside the Lake of Geneva, to find a title which would express in a word the character of my music... One day I leapt for joy. I had indeed found my title - Petrushka, the immortal and unhappy hero of every fair in all countries.'

All that was needed now was for this unhappy hero to step forward out of the score and dance, and that transition from concert piece into ballet was, again following Stravinsky's story, coaxed into happening by Diaghilev. He visited the composer in Switzerland (this must have been in September or October), heard what had been written of the puppet concerto, and persuaded Stravinsky he had the makings of a ballet.

The rest followed quickly. In October Stravinsky and his family moved to Beaulieu, near Nice, and by December he had added the first scene and the start of the third. Christmas he spent in St Petersburg, discussing the ballet with Diaghilev and with others who would be closely involved: Alexandre Benois, who had a share with him in the scenario and created the designs; Mikhail Fokine, the choreographer; and Vaslav Nijinsky, who was to be the first interpreter of the title role.

In mid-January 1911, having returned to Beaulieu, he wrote back to a Russian friend about the progress of his work: 'My last visit to Petersburg did me much good, and the final scene is shaping up excitingly... quick tempos, concertinas, major keys... smells of Russian food - shchi - and of sweat and glistening leather boots. Oh what excitement!' (It is interesting to note how very Russian he felt the music to be while he was writing it, whereas two decades later, in the memoirs already quoted, he was concerned to present Petrushka as an international figure.)

The final scene was interrupted for a month while Stravinsky was ill with nicotine poisoning. In late April he sent his family back to Russia and went himself to Rome, where the Diaghilev company were appearing and where he completed the score on 26 May. The first performance took place just 17 days later, in Paris, with a cast led by Nijinsky, Tamara Karsavina (the Ballerina), Alexandre Orlov (the Moor) and Enrico Cecchetti (the showman), and with Pierre Monteux conducting.

Since then, of course, Petrushka has had a firm place in the ballet repertory, but it turned out too that Stravinsky had, after all, composed a concert piece, as he had originally intended, for the score very quickly became one of his most frequently played orchestral works: he himself often included it in concerts and it was one of the first pieces he conducted for gramophone records, in June 1928.

Paul Griffiths

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Introduction to Petrushka

Of all Stravinsky's ballets Petrushka is the most graphic: the one where the music seems most conspiciously to be telling a story, and where, correspondingly, substantial passages suggest action in mime rather than formal dance. The score appears to have been fitted exactly to this particular narrative, whereas, to give just one example, even The Rite of Spring has been shown by Walt Disney to be just as suitable for dinosaurs to dance as ancient Scythians

However, in his own account of the work's genesis, Stravinsky was at pains to affirm that the music of Petrushka came before any notion of subject matter. According to his memoirs, he claimed:

'I wanted to refresh myself by composing an orchestral piece in which the piano would play the most important part... In composing the music, I had in mind a distinct picture of a puppet, suddenly endowed with life, exasperating the patience of the orchestra with diabolical cascades of arpeggios. The orchestra in turn retaliates with menacing trumpet blasts. The outcome is a terrific noise which reaches its climax and ends in the sorrowful and querulous collapse of the poor puppet'.

This sounds like a description of the ballet's second scene, though at this point, so Stravinsky insists, he still did not know he was writing a ballet, even less one with this subject. Speaking of the summer he spent in 1910 writing the piece, he said: 'I struggled for hours, walking beside the Lake of Geneva, to find a title which would express in a word the character of my music... One day I leapt for joy. I had indeed found my title - Petrushka, the immortal and unhappy hero of every fair in all countries.'

All that was needed now was for this unhappy hero to step forward out of the score and dance, and that transition from concert piece into ballet was, again following Stravinsky's story, coaxed into happening by Diaghilev. He visited the composer in Switzerland (this must have been in September or October), heard what had been written of the puppet concerto, and persuaded Stravinsky he had the makings of a ballet.

The rest followed quickly. In October Stravinsky and his family moved to Beaulieu, near Nice, and by December he had added the first scene and the start of the third. Christmas he spent in St Petersburg, discussing the ballet with Diaghilev and with others who would be closely involved: Alexandre Benois, who had a share with him in the scenario and created the designs; Mikhail Fokine, the choreographer; and Vaslav Nijinsky, who was to be the first interpreter of the title role.

In mid-January 1911, having returned to Beaulieu, he wrote back to a Russian friend about the progress of his work: 'My last visit to Petersburg did me much good, and the final scene is shaping up excitingly... quick tempos, concertinas, major keys... smells of Russian food - shchi - and of sweat and glistening leather boots. Oh what excitement!' (It is interesting to note how very Russian he felt the music to be while he was writing it, whereas two decades later, in the memoirs already quoted, he was concerned to present Petrushka as an international figure.)

The final scene was interrupted for a month while Stravinsky was ill with nicotine poisoning. In late April he sent his family back to Russia and went himself to Rome, where the Diaghilev company were appearing and where he completed the score on 26 May. The first performance took place just 17 days later, in Paris, with a cast led by Nijinsky, Tamara Karsavina (the Ballerina), Alexandre Orlov (the Moor) and Enrico Cecchetti (the showman), and with Pierre Monteux conducting.

Since then, of course, Petrushka has had a firm place in the ballet repertory, but it turned out too that Stravinsky had, after all, composed a concert piece, as he had originally intended, for the score very quickly became one of his most frequently played orchestral works: he himself often included it in concerts and it was one of the first pieces he conducted for gramophone records, in June 1928.

Paul Griffiths